The lighting system and its correct design is the most important point in finishing. Convenience, comfort, and quality of life in a house or apartment depend on competent lighting. With the help of competent lighting, you can also zone rooms, hide flaws, and emphasize the advantages of rooms.
It is important to think over the lighting to the smallest detail before renovation or rearrangement. Decide on the design of the rooms and their purpose, then the light will work for convenience and harmony for a long time.
Multi-level lighting: main light and spot
Modern rules and recommendations state that lighting must certainly be multi-level, solving several different tasks. These levels are usually divided into the following types:
- general. As the name suggests, it is used to illuminate the entire room as a whole, without dividing it into separate zones. This is what our grandfathers, grandmothers, and parents used. The classic of this solution is a powerful chandelier with several lamps in the center of the ceiling. Usually, it is also an interior accent at the same time. Now, instead of one chandelier, a grid of built-in lamps is often used. These can be different versions of spotlights, including those with variable directivity, or ceiling lights built into suspended ceilings;
- directional or zonal. It is also called a worker because it is often used to illuminate a specific area. For example, the kitchen work area is illuminated by placing lighting elements under the shelves. Or they make additional overhead lighting near desks in addition to table lamps. The zonal also includes lighting that divides the room into different functional zones. For example, this option is possible in a kitchen-dining room or a bedroom combined with a study;
- decorative. These lighting elements are needed to set design accents. These include pendant lights, sconces, and floor lamps.
Different types of lighting for each room
Sure, it sounds like Captian, but the lighting in every room and area of your home should be different.
In the kitchen, for example, it is important to arrange zonal lighting for the dining area and work surface. In small Khrushchev kitchens, the lighting of the dining area, usually, is also the general lighting at the same time. For a kitchen with an area of 6-9 sq. m, this is quite enough.
If you are lucky with a large kitchen, then you should make separate general lighting, for example, using spotlights. And highlight the dining area with a beautiful chandelier for zoning. The working area can be illuminated with built-in lights or use the LED strip fixed to the bottom of the shelf. For the light from the LED strip to become softer and more diffused, it is worth using a diffuser, for example, a box with a matte transparent side.
In the living room, on the one hand, a bright general light is not required, since the rest here. But on the other hand, it also hosts guests, so solemnity will not hurt. In addition to the general light in the living room, additional interior lighting elements are needed, for example, sconces. With their help, decorative lighting is created that accentuates details, decorates the interior, and creates a cozy atmosphere.
Corridors and hallways also require general lighting and zoning. Additionally, the entrance area is illuminated, where more light is needed so that it is convenient to dress and put on shoes.
In addition to the general light in the corridors, they make lighting at floor level. It gives soft light at night, so that it is convenient to move around the house or apartment, and the bright light does not hurt your eyes. For a large hallway, it is important to provide for something else and the ability to turn on / off the light from different ends. This is done using pass-through switches.
For the bedroom, you should choose soft light that does not strain your eyes. Here, the division into zones is a dim lamp on a bedside table or a wall near the bed, as well as illumination of mirrors or cabinets. If the bedroom also has a working area, it should be provided with separate lighting.
The lighting of a children’s room is based on a similar principle. Proceed from the fact that there is never enough light in the nursery. Therefore, it is necessary to make general lighting and illumination of working areas, especially educational. In it, firstly, a table lamp is required, and, secondly, overhead lighting, for example, using a ruler or a grid of spotlights.
When planning lighting in a house, it is important to decide on the type, base, power, color temperature, and color rendering. With the base, everything is simple – buy lamps for the specific lamps that you have chosen. The main types of plinths are E27, E14, E40, GX53, G4, GU10, GU 5.3, etc.
With power, or, correctly speaking, with brightness, it is more difficult. Everyone is used to evaluating it by incandescent lamps. But LED lamps have much less power. The fact is that we do not need the power of the bulbs as such, but their luminous flux per watt of energy consumed. Therefore, on packages with LED lamps, as well as fluorescent and halogen lamps, they also indicate the equivalent of the power of incandescent lamps.
To fully illuminate the bathroom, one or two devices with a power equivalent to 40-60 W of incandescent lamps are enough. The living room will require 5-6 or more light sources for a total power equivalent to 300-360 watts. For a kitchen in a Khrushchev, 100-150 W is enough, but a large one will need as much power as a living room.
The bedroom usually has enough lighting fixtures with a total power of 200 watts. But for a nursery, you should take brighter bulbs so that their total power is about 300 watts. For example, three lamps ERA LED SMD A60-11w-840-E27 or eight ERA LED SMD P45-5w-827-E27.
You can calculate the number of lamps based on their luminous flux, measured in lumens. In this case, the number of lamps is calculated by the formula E (lx) = F (lm) / S (m2), where E is the illumination, measured in lux (lx), F is the luminous flux (lamp luminosity), measured in lumens, and S is the area of the room.
For bedrooms and living rooms, an illumination of 150 lux is required, for children – 200 lux, for offices – 300–400 lux, and for bathrooms – 50 lux. Accordingly, a children’s room with an area of 15 sq. m requires lighting of 3000 lumens. In this case, you can choose, for example, four Gauss LEDs E27 / A60 / 10w or six Gauss LEDs E27 / 7w Dimmable.
Another very important parameter that directly affects your well-being, feelings and mood is color temperature. There are three main types of lamps:
with warm white light (from 2700 to 3500 K). This light is similar to the light from incandescent bulbs. It is soft and pleasing to the eye. Well suited for all living spaces;
with neutral white light (3500 to 5300 K). It is widely used to illuminate work areas and premises. In offices, just such a light is made, since it meets the standards for illumination of workplaces. At home in apartments, it is less common. 4000 K lamps are purchased for installation in kitchens or workplaces, for example, in a study corner;
with cold white light (above 5300 K). Used only in work areas. Often this light is colloquially called “operating”, as there it is most often used.
Interesting lighting solutions
The great thing about modern lighting fixtures is that they can be installed anywhere. Spotlights, LED strips – all this wide variety allows you to implement the most unexpected and interesting solutions.
For example, you can illuminate a mirror by placing a lighting fixture behind it. As a result, the surrounding space is illuminated by a diffused light, rather than a contrasting, aging reflection. Usually, LED strips are used for this, or mirrors with already built-in diodes are purchased.
Another option for using the tape is to illuminate a multi-level ceiling in a bedroom or living room. The option looks good in combination with spotlights located in the right places.
By the way, spotlights can be used not only for tomzoning, but also as decorative lighting. See how the illumination of a niche with a picture placed in it is made in the living room! Lighting in this case is its additional element.
And these are just a few examples of what can be done with different lighting fixtures. Imagine, choose the right lighting – you will get something beautiful and interesting.